In English orthography, ⟨x⟩ is typically pronounced as the voiceless consonant cluster /ks/ when it follows the stressed vowel (e. g. ox), and the voiced consonant /ɡz/ when it precedes the stressed vowel (e. g. exam). It is also pronounced /ɡz/ when it precedes a silent ⟨h⟩ and a stressed vowel (e. g. exhaust). Before ⟨i⟩ or ⟨u⟩, it can be pronounced /kʃ/ or /ɡʒ/ (e. g. sexual and luxury); these result from earlier /ksj/ and /ɡzj/. It also makes the sound /kʃ/ in words ending in -xion (typically used only in British-based spellings of the language; American spellings tend to use -ction). When ⟨x⟩ ends a word, it is always /ks/ (e. g. fax), except in loan words such as faux (see French, below).